The names and chemical formulas of compounds are essential vocabulary in chemistry. Inorganic compounds include oxides, bases, acids, and salts. The names of compounds with these ions consist of the metal and the anion. Early chemists associated organic compounds with plants and animals and inorganic compounds with the nonliving portion of our world. Practice: Predict the charge on monatomic ions. However, if there is any doubt in your mind whether a metal forms more than one cation, use a Roman numeral to indicate the charge. Inorganic Acid Names and Formulae Introductory Chemistry Tutorial Key Concepts. While there are higher oxidation numbers, they are less common. Charges are not expressed when naming these ions. Binary ionic compounds … Name the compounds (a) SO2, (b) PCl5, (c) Cl2O3. All materials on the site are licensed Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Unported CC BY-SA 3.0 & GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL). An acid is composed of an anion connected to enough H+ ions to neutralize, or balance, the anion's charge. What does the -ium ending on the name ammonium ion tell you about the composition of the ion? Common polyatomic ions. (2.8) 2.8b Name binary and oxyacids using the systematic IUPAC method; write the chemical formulas of acids given… Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free. The prefix mono- is never used with the first element. (c) The nickel(II) ion is Ni2+. Two ClO4– ions are required to balance the charge on one Ni2+ ion, giving Ni(ClO4)2. 3. As with ionic compounds, the system for naming covalent compounds enables chemists to write the molecular formula from the name and vice versa. (The name hydrogen chloride is used only for the pure compound; water solutions of HCl are called hydrochloric acid.) Thus, you can predict that the substance named hydrogen chloride has the formula HCl, containing one H+ to balance the charge of one Cl–. Each class is distinguished from the others by their chemical formulas, properties, and names. FIGURE 2.25 can help you remember the charge and number of oxygen atoms in the various oxyanions. If you are the copyright holder of any material contained on our site and intend to remove it, please contact our site administrator for approval. The compounds consist entirely of nonmetals, so they are molecular rather than ionic. Naming monatomic ions and ionic compounds. Among inorganic compounds we will consider three categories of substances: ionic compounds, molecular compounds, and acids. Because the compound contains three chloride ions, Cl–, the cation must be Fe3+, the iron(III), or ferric, ion. Name the anion obtained by removing one oxygen atom from the perbromate ion, BrO4–. Because this ion has an -ide ending, the acid is given a hydro- prefix and an -ic ending: hydrocyanic acid. 2.8a Name ionic compounds from the systematic IUPAC rules based on the empirical formula; give empirical formulas of named ionic compounds; know the common monatomic and polyatomic ions. (c) Because SO42– is the sulfate ion, H2SO4 is called sulfuric acid. Name the acids (a) HCN, (b) HNO3, (c) H2SO4, (d) H2SO3. (e in b)&&0=b[e].o&&a.height>=b[e].m)&&(b[e]={rw:a.width,rh:a.height,ow:a.naturalWidth,oh:a.naturalHeight})}return b}var C="";u("pagespeed.CriticalImages.getBeaconData",function(){return C});u("pagespeed.CriticalImages.Run",function(b,c,a,d,e,f){var r=new y(b,c,a,e,f);x=r;d&&w(function(){window.setTimeout(function(){A(r)},0)})});})();pagespeed.CriticalImages.Run('/mod_pagespeed_beacon','https://schoolbag.info/chemistry/central/16.html','2L-ZMDIrHf',true,false,'XY2kv0QekUM'); 1. Currently, there are over 20 million known chemical compounds. (a) The sulfate ion is SO42–. Combining cations and anions to form binary inorganic compounds is simple. The major division is between organic and inorganic compounds. Silicon Dioxide (SiO2) There are several common names of Silicon Dioxide (SiO2), quartz and sand. 1. dinitrogen pentoxide N2O5 2. iron (III) chloride Fel3 3. barium sulfide BaS 4. carbon monoxide CO 5. © 2016-2020 All site design rights belong to S.Y.A. There are more than 50 … For most substances, however, we rely on a set of rules that leads to an informative and unique name for each substance, a name based on the composition of the substance. When we encounter the chemical formula for an acid at this stage of the course, it will be written with H as the first element, as in HCl and H2SO4. hydrogen (H2), nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), fluorine (F2), chlorine (Cl2), bromine (Br2), and iodine (I2) Exercise: Write both the name and formulas (or symbols) of the gases in the following sentence. The most common of these ions are shown in boldface. SAMPLE EXERCISE 2.15 Relating the Names and Formulas of Binary Molecular Compounds. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. Notice that C and N, both period 2 elements, have only three O atoms each, whereas the period 3 elements P, S, and Cl have four O atoms each. The names and formulas of these compounds are an essential vocabulary in chemistry. Names and Formulas of Binary Molecular Compounds. … The names and formulas of the common anions are listed in TABLE 2.5 and on the back inside cover of the text. Acids containing anions whose names end in -ide are named by changing the -ide ending to -ic, adding the prefix hydro- to this anion name, and then following with the word acid: 2. !b.a.length)for(a+="&ci="+encodeURIComponent(b.a[0]),d=1;d=a.length+e.length&&(a+=e)}b.i&&(e="&rd="+encodeURIComponent(JSON.stringify(B())),131072>=a.length+e.length&&(a+=e),c=!0);C=a;if(c){d=b.h;b=b.j;var f;if(window.XMLHttpRequest)f=new XMLHttpRequest;else if(window.ActiveXObject)try{f=new ActiveXObject("Msxml2.XMLHTTP")}catch(r){try{f=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP")}catch(D){}}f&&(f.open("POST",d+(-1==d.indexOf("?")?"? It is never wrong to do so, even though it may be unnecessary. The names and formulas of some common cations are shown in TABLE 2.4 and on the back inside cover of the text. CLASSIFICATION, NAMING AND WRITING FORMULAS OF INORGANIC COMPOUNDS RECOGNIZING AND NAMING BINARY IONIC COMPOUNDS A binary compound is a compound in which only two elements are present. The rules for chemical nomenclature are based on the division of substances into categories. What information is conveyed by the endings -ide, -ate, and -ite in the name of an anion? Carbon compounds such as carbides (e.g., silicon carbide [SiC2]), The system used in naming substances is called chemical nomenclature, from the Latin words nomen (name) and calare (to call). Acids are an important class of hydrogen-containing compounds, and they are named in a special way. //]]>. 2.8 NAMING INORGANIC COMPOUNDS The names and chemical formulas of compounds are essential vocabulary in chemistry. (function(){for(var g="function"==typeof Object.defineProperties?Object.defineProperty:function(b,c,a){if(a.get||a.set)throw new TypeError("ES3 does not support getters and setters. Recall from Section 2.7 that ionic compounds usually consist of metal ions combined with nonmetal ions. (c) You must determine the charge of Fe in this compound because an iron atom can form more than one cation. Figure 2.23 Different ions of the same element have different properties. The cations that you will encounter most frequently are shown in boldface. they have two elements. Give the chemical formulas for (a) silicon tetrabromide, (b) disulfur dichloride. Both substances shown are compounds of iron. For example, the poison NaCN has the name sodium cyanide. The name of an acid is related to the name of its anion, as summarized in FIGURE 2.26. Worked example: Finding the formula of an ionic compound. Name the ionic compounds (a) NH4Br, (b) Cr2O3, (c) Co(NO3)2. 4. For binary ionic compounds (ionic compounds that contain only two types of elements), the compounds are named by writing the name of the cation first followed by the name of the anion. (b) The ending -ite indicates an oxyanion with the same charge but one O atom fewer than the corresponding oxyanion that ends in -ate. Figure 2.24 Procedure for naming anions. ");b!=Array.prototype&&b!=Object.prototype&&(b[c]=a.value)},h="undefined"!=typeof window&&window===this?this:"undefined"!=typeof global&&null!=global?global:this,k=["String","prototype","repeat"],l=0;lb||1342177279>>=1)c+=c;return a};q!=p&&null!=q&&g(h,n,{configurable:!0,writable:!0,value:q});var t=this;function u(b,c){var a=b.split(". The pure compound, which is a gas under normal conditions, is called hydrogen cyanide. SAMPLE EXERCISE 2.11 Determining the Formula of an Oxyanion from Its Name, Based on the formula for the sulfate ion, predict the formula for (a) the selenate ion and (b) the selenite ion. (b) The cation is Ba2+, the barium ion, and the anion is OH–, the hydroxide ion: barium hydroxide. Molecular compounds that contain hydrogen and one other element are an important exception, however. This online quiz is intended to give you extra practice in naming compounds, writing formulas and calculating molar masses (formula weights). Many complex ions have the general formula NMOm n–, and the names of ionic compounds containing these ions are constructed in the … 2. a. a. Cations formed from metal atoms have the same name as the metal o E.g. IUPAC nomenclature (1) provides a systematic framework for the naming of inorganic (non-carbon containing) compounds and organic (carbon containing) compounds based on their composition or structure. Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Unported CC BY-SA 3.0. The metals that form only one cation (only one possible charge) are those of group 1A and group 2A, as well as Al3+(group 3A) and two transition-metal ions: Ag+ (group 1B) and Zn2+ (group 2B). If both elements are in the same group, the lower one is named first. Give the chemical formulas for (a) hydrobromic acid, (b) carbonic acid. The Hg22+ ion is unusual because, even though it is a metal ion, it is not monatomic. Practice writing formulas from names and names from formulas using the examples below. Rule 4 is necessary because we cannot predict formulas for most molecular substances the way we can for ionic compounds. ("naturalWidth"in a&&"naturalHeight"in a))return{};for(var d=0;a=c[d];++d){var e=a.getAttribute("data-pagespeed-url-hash");e&&(! … Dry air contains about 79% nitrogen and 21% oxygen, with small amounts of carbon dioxide, neon, and argon. In this section we consider the basic rules for naming inorganic compounds. Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds Recall that ionic compounds usually consist of chemical combinations of metals and nonmetals. Predict the formulas for the borate ion and silicate ion, assuming they contain a single B and Si atom, respectively, and follow the trends shown in Figure 2.25. Determine the oxidation number of S in each of the following compounds: a) Na2S2O3 ans. In the second period the charges also increase from right to left, from 1– for NO3– to 2– for CO32–. Following points should be kept in mind while writing a chemical formula. Notice also that although each of the anions in Figure 2.25 ends in -ate, the ClO4- ion also hasa per- prefix. (If you thought the compound contained S2– and O2– ions, you failed to recognize the polyatomic sulfate ion.). Inorganic compound, any substance in which two or more chemical elements (usually other than carbon) are combined, nearly always in definite proportions. Compounds of carbon are classified as organic when carbon is bound to hydrogen. Similarly, the formula for hydrogen sulfide is H2S because two H+ are needed to balance the charge on S2–. The perchlorate ion is ClO4–. Write the formula for the hypobromite and bromite ions. In naming ionic compounds, it is important to recognize polyatomic ions and to determine the charge of cations with variable charge. Most of the compounds are binary compounds, i.e. (e in b.c))if(0>=c.offsetWidth&&0>=c.offsetHeight)a=!1;else{d=c.getBoundingClientRect();var f=document.body;a=d.top+("pageYOffset"in window?window.pageYOffset:(document.documentElement||f.parentNode||f).scrollTop);d=d.left+("pageXOffset"in window?window.pageXOffset:(document.documentElement||f.parentNode||f).scrollLeft);f=a.toString()+","+d;b.b.hasOwnProperty(f)?a=!1:(b.b[f]=!0,a=a<=b.g.height&&d<=b.g.width)}a&&(b.a.push(e),b.c[e]=!0)}y.prototype.checkImageForCriticality=function(b){b.getBoundingClientRect&&z(this,b)};u("pagespeed.CriticalImages.checkImageForCriticality",function(b){x.checkImageForCriticality(b)});u("pagespeed.CriticalImages.checkCriticalImages",function(){A(x)});function A(b){b.b={};for(var c=["IMG","INPUT"],a=[],d=0;dj��L�0�x�u}�4_e@C��`c@1�x�FH��@�NS��. Many compounds also have common names. c. Anions derived by adding H+ to an oxyanion are named by adding as a prefix the word hydrogen or dihydrogen, as appropriate: Notice that each H+ added reduces the negative charge of the parent anion by one. a) +2 b) H2SO3 b) +4 c) SO2 c) +4 d) K2S2O4 d) +3 e) Al2S3 e) -2 f) BaS2O8 f) +7 2. Only water solutions of HCN are referred to as hydrocyanic acid. Name the acid obtained by adding H+ to the iodate ion, IO3–. This and the following section describe the rules for naming simple covalent compounds, beginning with inorganic compounds and then turning to simple organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen. Naming Binary Compounds Name: _____ Identify the type of binary compound and then write the correct chemical formula for the compound named in each of the following examples. The name of an ionic compound also gives you information about the oxidation numbers of the elements. b. SAMPLE EXERCISE 2.14 Relating the Names and Formulas of Acids. Those of group 7A always have a 1– charge (F–, Cl–, Br–, and I–), and those of group 6A have a 2– charge (O2– and S2–). Looking at the list of oxidation numbers in Table 1, it is found that potassium, K, has an oxidation number of +1 and bromide (the combined form of bromine), Br, has an oxidation number of -1. In order to write a chemical formula, it is important to know the symbol of the elements present in the compound, formula of the radicals and the valency of the elements in that compound. Why is CrO named using a Roman numeral, chromium(II) oxide, whereas CaO is named without a Roman numeral, calcium oxide? (a) The potassium ion is K+, and the sulfide ion is S2–. ��6�MWX�$n�X��[i0�]{tC���>��w�]�Mk7��hw@�������v��(&����j��Y�0�?7,6� odĦ� The carbonate ion is CO32–, so the hydrogen carbonate ion is HCO3–. If a metal can form cations with different charges, the positive charge is indicated by a Roman numeral in parentheses following the name of the metal: Ions of the same element that have different charges have different properties, such as different colors (FIGURE 2.23). (b) The calcium ion is Ca2+. : Na+ is a sodium ion, Zn+2 is a zinc ion, etc. Names of ionic compounds consist of the cation name followed by the anion name: In the chemical formulas for aluminum nitrate and copper(II) perchlorate, parentheses followed by the appropriate subscript are used because the compounds contain two or more polyatomic ions. All others are inorganic compounds. Acids containing anions whose names end in -ate or -ite are named by changing -ate to -ic and -ite to -ous and then adding the word acid. An older method still widely used for distinguishing between differently charged ions of a metal uses the endings -ous and -ic added to the root of the element's Latin name: Although we will only rarely use these older names in this text, you might encounter them elsewhere. Start studying Chapter 6: Inorganic and Organic Compounds- Names and Formulas. Give the chemical formulas for (a) magnesium sulfate, (b) silver sulfide, (c) lead(II) nitrate. The metals form the cations, and the nonmetals form the anions. The prefixes per- and hypo- are retained in going from the anion to the acid. Search Search If a metal can have multiple charges, the positive charge is indicated by a Roman numeral in parentheses following the name … Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Polyatomic ions. In going from the name of an ionic compound to its chemical formula, you must know the charges of the ions to determine the subscripts. Although this distinction is no longer pertinent, the classification between organic and inorganic compounds continues to be useful. Ionic compounds are neutral compounds made up of positively charged ions called cations and negatively charged ions called anions. Thus, the formula for the selenite ion is SeO32–. "),d=t;a[0]in d||!d.execScript||d.execScript("var "+a[0]);for(var e;a.length&&(e=a.shift());)a.length||void 0===c?d[e]?d=d[e]:d=d[e]={}:d[e]=c};function v(b){var c=b.length;if(0